This website is also meant to be accessible to non-specialists, who may not be in a position to form an independent opinion concerning all of the the reasoning concerning the hypothesis presented here (of a greater participation of water in past geological processes).  It may therefore be useful to present some of the counter-arguments which could be presented in opposition to those given in the website.

1. The involvement of water is not contested in the official theories.  On the contrary, especially with the quartz-rich granitoid rocks, this involvement is taken for granted, although the greater quantity of water considered here is not considered necessary on chemical grounds.  Seen chemically, all granitoid rocks can be derived either from buried sedimentary complexes which have been strongly metamorphosed or molten, or else from differentiations in magmas ascending from below.  Conception involving larger quantities of water, and especially Neptunism-like precipitation processes, are not necessary, since the water of the oceans and earth’s crust is sufficient to account for the chemically-necessary quantities.  In any event, the mantle rock lying below the earth’s crust (30 kilometers depth or more) is particularly deficient in water.

2. The conception that the Earth posessed a large surrounding layer of stellar gases in its earliest period, four billion years ago, is not argued against.  However, the idea that this layer persisted into the Archaen (two billion years ago), or even into the Proterozoic (500 million years) is questionable; no observable features seem to require an atmosphere significantly larger that that of the present.  The rocks of this period, on the contrary, clearly indicate the existence of deep water (primal ocean) and primeval continents, or thus conditions which are in a sense similar to that of today.

3. Starting with morphological considerations becomes problematic, if one simply draws parallels between external similarities and leaves out of consideration the enormous variations in individual starting conditions:  If one speaks of colloids and „hardened gels“, since substances from our everyday experience in a hardened gel condition create similar forms, but does not consider the fact that the „gels“ in question stood, for example, under a pressure of 2 Kilobars.  A hardened, water-containing rock reacts to this unimaginable pressure as a colloidal substance, however, although in reality it is absolutely hard.  The difficulty in imagining such extreme conditions is actually no valid argument against an unusual morphological state of affairs.

4.  The qualitative aspects of matter spoken about in the chapter „Were substances different in the past?“ are, to a certain degree, of an „anthropomorphic“ nature.  Moreover, reference is made to etheric life-forces which are not accepted by science at present.  Science does not presume to have grasped „matter as such“, but rather is involved in the most precise description and calculation of the relationship between physical and chemical parameters.  Placing emphasis on qualitative aspects must not be allowed to relativize the inner coherence of the well-known chemistry and physics of the present, in order to pass over to „entirely different conditions“ of the primeval earth.


These counter-arguments- presented by the author- could easily be expanded.  From the doubts they create, one could feel pressured to abandon the hypothesis of a greater participation of water.  Why does the author nevertheless consider the possibility of such a participation, and of a larger primeval atmosphere, sufficiently probable to go to the effort of bringing these ideas up for discussion?

Although the present appearance of rock formations, rocks and minerals lead naturally to thoughts of hardened conditions, they nevertheless preserve evidence of processes which testify to an absolutely different world.  This thought is repeatedly consigned to the background, especially when the official theories for particular appearances can make convincing reference to processes operating in the present.  The thought nevertheless arises again and again, when the rocks found in nature are allowed to express themselves through their forms, saying „It was nevertheless different then!  The early earth, with respect to the usual conceptions, was something totally unheard-of, far from the conditions of the present earth.  One has around oneself today only the hardened, dried-out and altered remains of those conditions of planetary development.  One naturally is inclined to attribute the character of these remains to earlier conditions also.  But in doing so, one only approaches the truth with aspects which actually were similar to those of today.  Other aspects were nevertheless far different!“  Whether such an impression is a true intuition or an illusion, can naturally only be shown by investigating more deeply.

The history of geology, paleontology, etc. shows how the overenthusiastic following of a lead which has validity in itself, can result in incorrect „discoveries“ and assertions, and the opposition to these can conceal for years or decades what was correct in the original direction.  For this reason the questions and hypotheses presented here are intended undogmatically and with all openness.  If they give the impulse and possibility of going into certain subjects again in a fundamental way, then their purpose has already been reached.

The possible justification of the ideas is also supported by all the theses which have arisen, and which appear to modify the picture of the earth’s early history in the same direction.  For example, an Australian investigative team reported in „Science“ (volume 308, p. 841) concerning the oldest zircon crystals, that they were formed at the astonishingly low temperature of only 700 °C, and presented the thesis that the 200 million-year-old Earth of the earliest Archean already posessed oceans composed of water, where life may have developed far earlier than previously thought possible.  A Japanese team presented the thesis several years back in the journal „Nature“ that the Earth’s inner mantle (greater than 1000 km depth) posesses up to .2% water by weight, which would strongly modify the previous picture of a nearly water-free mantle.  One of the most surprising results of the well-known deep drilling at Windischeschenbach in the early 1990’s was the permeability of the earth’s crust.  The rock from the deepest region of the drilling at nine kilometers depth was not dry and dense as expected, but rather porous.  The drill passed through fracture zones from which seemingly inexhaustable quantities of strongly mineralized hot water poured out.  And it is also significant that the most recent investigations (as of 2013) of distant gas clouds and planetary nebula, where new suns arise, show large percentages of water molecules.